Table 2

In-depth overview of the skeletal and spinal features of the study cohort

FeatureParticipants, n/n evaluated(%)Evaluation type
Skull abnormalities19/43(44.2)
 Wide anterior fontanel13/43(30.2)XR, CT, PE
 Frontal bossing3/43(7.0)XR, MRI, PE
 Craniosynostosis2/16(12.5)XR, CT, MRI
 Other abnormalities of calvaria morphology6/16(37.5)XR, CT, MRI
Jaw and tooth abnormalities44/51(86.3)
 Permanent upper incisors macrodontia30/35(85.7)XR, PE
 Deciduous incisors macrodontia9/16(56.3)XR, PE
 Tooth malposition/dental crowding21/51(41.2)XR, PE
 Oligodontia7/51(13.7)XR, PE
Spine abnormalities17/32(62.5)
 Scoliosis9/32(40)XR, MRI
 Hyperkyphosis4/32(20)XR, MRI
 Hyperlordosis3/32(10)XR, MRI
 Abnormal vertebral morphology4/32(12.5)XR, MRI
 Coccygeal anomalies4/32(12.5)XR, MRI
 Low-lying conus medullaris4/7(57.1)MRI
 Hydromyelia/hydrosyringomyelia/ventriculus terminalis4/7(57.1)MRI
Rib abnormalities18/29(62.1)
 Cervical rib14/29(48.3)XR
 C7 hypertrophic transverse process4/29(13.8)XR
Hand abnormalities15/27(55.6)
 Carpal bone aplasia1/27(3.7)XR
 Carpal synostosis3/27(11.1)XR
 Other abnormalities of carpal morphology5/27(18.5)XR
Abnormalities of metacarpal morphology2/27(7.4)
 Short middle phalanx of the fifth finger12/27(44.4)XR
 Short middle phalanx of the second and fifth finger3/27(11.1)XR
 Cone-shaped epiphyses of the phalanges1/27(3.7)XR
Altered skeletal maturation15/27(55.6)
 Delayed maturation of the hand bones14/27(51.9)XR
 Advanced maturation of the hand bones1/27(3.7)XR
 Discordant maturation of carpals and phalanges6/27(22.2)XR
 Short upper limbs2/6(33.3)XR
 Short lower limbs1/5(20.0)XR
Hip abnormalities8/14(57.1)
 Hip asymmetry3/14(21.4)XR
 Hip dysplasia3/14(21.4)XR
 Legg-Calvè-Perthes disease1/14(7.1)XR
 Absent femoral head ossific nucleus1/14(7.1)XR
Foot abnormalities6/7(85.7)
 Broad and short tubular bones in first ray3/7(42.9)XR
 Short/dysmorphic tubular bones in other rays2/7(28.6)XR
 Cone-shaped epiphyses of the toes2/7(28.6)XR
 Calcaneal alteration1/7(14.3)XR
  • PE, physical examination; XR, X-ray.