Table 1

Ophthalmological characteristics of strabismic participants in the subject family

IdentifierAge at examination (years)Type of reported strabismusReported age of onsetEye movement fullPrism cover test measurementsVisual acuity and refractive statusStrabismus surgeryOther ocular conditions
001*24Accommodative left esotropia with an A pattern9 monthsYWithout correction, there was a 25 PD left esotropia. With correction, there was a 20 PD left esotropia in the primary position. This increased to 30 PD in upgaze and decreased to 10 PD in downgazeVisual acuity was 20/20 in the right eye and 20/20–3 in the left eye with correction. Wearing: +2.50+3.25×20° OD, +2.25+3.00×135° OSBilateral strabismus surgery at age 2 and at age 3; botulinum toxin injection at the age of 4
002*60Hypotropia and left exotropia. Consecutive exodeviation after initial esotropia surgeryUnclearY20 PD left exotropia. 15 PD of left hypotropia in the primary positionVisual acuity was 20/20–2 OD, 20/20–1 OS with correction. Wearing: −3.50+0.50×50° OD, −4.50+0.75×90° OSStrabismus surgery at ages 3, 8 and 16
004*82Right esotropia3 yearsY12 PD comitant esotropiaVisual acuity was 20/200 right, 20/20 left with correction: −1.00+1.75×55° OD, −1.00+2.00×80° OSStrabismus surgery at ages 7 and 10Bilateral senile cataract, right dense amblyopia
00783HypertropiaUnclearYPoor fixation from reduced visual acuity in the left eye due to age-related macular degeneration precluded cover testingVisual acuity was 20/30 OD, 20/800 OS with correction. Wearing: −1.50+2.00×100° OD, −0.50 OSYes. But no time specific information provided.Macular degeneration left eye, macular drusen right eye.
Bilateral senile cataract
009*76Right superior oblique muscle palsy; excyclotorsionAfter age of 2, exact onset time unclear, aware of ocular misalignment at the age of 9Y8 PD right hypertropia which increased on right head tilt and decreased on left head tiltVisual acuity: 20/20 right and left corrected:
−0.50+1.00×170° OD, −1.25+1.25×35° OS
NoPresbyopia
011*14Left esotropiaBefore the age of 2Y15 PD left esotropia in the primary position while wearing her glasses. Looking through the top part of glasses at near, her deviation increased to 30 PD. However, when used the near add, reducing the need to accommodate, left esotropia decreased to 15 PDVisual acuity was 20/20 in each eye with correction. Wearing: −3.25+0.25×0° OD, −3.25 OS. She had an add of +1.50 sphere in each spectacle lensNoMyopia
013*45Superior oblique palsyUnclear, aware of ocular misalignment at the age of 6Y15 PD right hypertropia in the primary position, increasing to 20 PD on right head tilt, decreasing to 12 PD on left head tiltVisual acuity: 20/20–2 in each eye with soft contact lens correctionNoMyopia
014*72Esotropia, right hypertropia; excyclotorsion in both eyes
(a history suggests infantile esotropia)
Unclear, patient was informed the strabismus was present since birthY25 PD esotropia SC at distance/8 PD right hypertropia SC at distance/20 PD esotropia SC at near/4 PD right hypertropia SC at near/Titmus testing results were –/1, –/3 and –/9Visual acuity was 20/25 OD and 20/25 OS2 strabismus surgeries during 50 sSenile cataract, latent nystagmus, left eye suppression
(self-reported diplopia, but able to ignore it)
  • 006 did not participate in the clinical study, and no supporting clinical data were available.

  • *The type of reported strabismus in individuals was confirmed by examination.

  • PD, prism diopter.