Table 2

Semen characteristics and sperm morphology in the SPEF2-mutated men

A028-II-1A042-II-1F003-II-2Reference limits*
Semen parameters
Semen volume (mL)
Sperm concentration (106/mL)10.49.321.015.0
Motility (%)
Progressive motility (%)
Sperm morphology
Absent flagella (%)
Short flagella (%)
Coiled flagella (%)
Angulation (%)
Irregular calibre (%)
Normal flagella (%)13.530.035.023.0
  • *Reference limits (fifth centiles and their 95% CI) according to the WHO standards and the distribution range of morphologically normal spermatozoa observed in 926 fertile individuals.26 27

  • SPEF2, sperm flagellar 2.