Table 3

Retracted medical genetics and non-medical genetics articles from 1970 to 2018 and in five time periods. (A) Time (years) to retraction when scientific misconduct (ie, fabrication/falsification, plagiarism) was involved. (B) Country of origin of authors of retracted articles. Information pertaining to the seven top countries with the highest number of biomedical retracted articles1

Reason for retraction1970–20181970–20002001–20052006–20102011–20152016–2018
Medical genetics
N/mean time (95% CI) – median (Q1, Q3)
Non-medical genetics
N/mean time (95% CI) – median (Q1, Q3)
Medical genetics
N/mean time (95% CI) – median (Q1, Q3)
Non-medical genetics
N/mean time (95% CI) – median (Q1, Q3)
Medical genetics
N/mean time (95% CI) – median (Q1, Q3)
Non-medical genetics
N/mean time (95% CI) – median (Q1, Q3)
Medical genetics
N/mean time (95% CI) – median (Q1, Q3)
Non-medical genetics
N/mean time (95% CI) – median (Q1, Q3)
Medical genetics
N/mean time (95% CI) – median (Q1, Q3)
Non-medical genetics
N/mean time (95% CI) – median (Q1, Q3)
Medical genetics
N/mean time (95% CI) – median (Q1, Q3)
Non-medical genetics
N/mean time (95% CI) – median (Q1, Q3)
A.Time to retraction due to scientific misconduct reasons
Fabrication or falsification*128/4.7 (4.0 to 5.3) – 4.0 (1.8, 6.5)248/6.4 (5.8 to 7.0) – 5.4 (2.3, 9.0)17†/ 7.3 (6.6 to 8.0) – 6.6 (2.7, 10.3)28‡/10.5 (9.8 to 11.1) – 8.6 (4.4, 15.3)19/5.9 (5.4 to 6.4) – 5.9 (1.3, 9.9)47§/9.5 (9.3 to 9.7) – 10.3 (6.0, 13.5)55¶**/4.8 (4.7 to 4.8) – 5.0 (2.7, 6.8)86††‡‡/6.9 (6.8 to 6.9) – 6.7 (5.0, 9.1)33/2.9 (2.8 to 3.0) – 2.9 (1.6, 3.9)82§§¶¶/3.1 (3.0 to 3.1) –2.9 (1.4, 4.7)4/0.8 (0.3 to 1.2) – 0.7 (0.4, 1.1)5/1.1 (0.7 to 1.6) – 1.0 (0.5, 1.5)
P value0.001NS0.005<0.001NSNS
Plagiarism***71/2.3 (1.7 to 3.0) – 1.3 (0.5, 3.0)76/2.3 (1.7 to 3.0) – 1.3 (0.5, 3.1)2/7.0 (0.0 to 15.6) – 7.0 (6.6, 7.5)2/14.6 (0.0 to 38.1) – 14.6 (13.3, 15.9)8/5.5 (4.2 to 6.8) – 4.3 (3.2, 7.1)4/3.5 (0.1 to 6.9) – 2.2 (0.4, 5.3)12/2.8 (2.2 to 3.4) – 0.9 (0.5, 5.3)23/2.4 (2.2 to 2.7) – 1.5 (0.6, 4.0)36/1.9 (1.8 to 2.0) – 1.6 (0.9, 2.4)33/1.8 (1.7 to 1.9) – 1.3 (0.5, 3.0)13/0.5 (0.5 to 0.6) – 0.4 (0.3, 0.5)14/1.2 (1.1 to 1.2) – 1.0 (0.8, 1.5)
P valueNSNSNSNSNS0.001
Medical genetics nff/npNon-medical genetics nff/npMedical genetics nff/npNon-medical genetics nff/npMedical genetics nff/npNon-medical genetics nff/npMedical genetics nff/npNon-medical genetics nff/npMedical genetics nff/npNon-medical genetics nff/npMedical genetics nff/npNon-medical genetics nff/np
B. Country of authors of retracted articles
China25/3614/340/01/00/20/010/65/213/238/180/71/12
Germany14/13/03/03/01/05/05/12/01/00/00/00/0
India15/93/40/00/00/10/12/43/211/20/11/20/0
Japan33/219/01/05/05/011/111¶/013/05/01/01/00/0
South Korea12/64/30/00/02/14/01/21/11/17/4§§0/00/0
UK16/13/20/02/01/11/05/12/05/01/10/00/0
US133/859/812† / 013/09/19§ / 151**/428††‡‡/321/338¶¶/31/0 1/1
  • One article could have authors from more than one country; authors with at least four retractions in a specific time period are mentioned as footnotes.

  • The reasons for retraction as per the Retraction Watch database’s nomenclature:

  • *Falsification/fabrication of data, images and results, and manipulation of results and images.

  • †Four retracted articles by Mohan K Raizada (USA).

  • ‡Four retracted articles by Alfredo Fusco (Italy).

  • §Eight retracted articles by Jin Q Cheng (USA).

  • ¶Eight retracted articles by Naoki Mori (Japan).

  • **Four retracted articles by Savio LC Woo (USA).

  • ††Eleven retracted articles by Faziul H Sarkar (USA).

  • ‡‡Eight retracted articles by Jin Q Cheng (USA).

  • §§Four retracted articles by Soo Kyung Kang (South Korea).

  • ¶¶Five retracted articles by Faziul H Sarkar (USA).

  • ***Euphemism for plagiarism and plagiarism of article, data, images or text.

  • N, number of retracted articles;NS, not significant; 1Q, 3Q, first and third quartiles;nff, number of retracted articles for fabrication/falsification in the specified country;np, number of retracted articles for plagiarism in the specified country.