Table 3

Level II study of screening tests for pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) in patients with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), using reference standard

StudyNo of subjectsPrevalence of PAVMsReference standardTestSensitivitySpecificity
Cottin et al (2004)8210545%CT or PATTCE93%52%
Chest x-ray70%98%
A-a gradient68%98%
  • A-a gradient, alveolar–arterial gradient calculated from arterial blood gas on room air; CT, CT of the chest; PA, diagnostic pulmonary angiography; TTCE, transthoracic contrast echocardiography (using agitated saline).