Table 5 Teratogens associated with double outlet right ventricle in animal studies
ExposureCardiac anatomySpeciesReference
Copper citrateDORVHamster106
VSD
Retinoic acidDORVHamster103
VSD
TGA
Overriding aorta w/VSD
Retinoic acidDORVChick101
VSD
Vitamin ADORVMouse102
TGA
VSD
EphedrineDORVChick98
Truncus arteriosus
VSD w/overriding aorta
EthanolDORVMouse193
VSD
TOF
TGA
Endocardial cushion defect
Overriding PA
Overriding Ao
BromodeoxyuridineDORVChick107
VSD
PDA
Nimustine hydrochlorideDORVQuail–chick chimeras105
VSD
Truncus arteriosus
Bis-diamineDORVChick104
VSD
Truncus arteriosus
Tedral (theophylline, ephedrine and phenobarbital)DORVChick99
VSD
DORV with DILV
Truncus arteriosus
TGA
TheophyllineDORVChick99
VSD
DORV with DILV
Sodium valproateDORVMouse100
VSD
Maternal diabetesDORVMouse108
Endocardial cushion defect
TGA
AS
VSD
Electrical shockDORVChick110
Ectopia cordis
Bay 11-7085 NF-κB signalling pathwayDORVChick194
VSDs
Great arteries stenosis
  • Ao, aorta; AS, aortic stenosis; DILV, double inlet left ventricle; DORV, double outlet right ventricle; PDA, patent ductus arteriosus; PA, pulmonary atresia; TGA, transposition of the great arteries; TOF, tetralogy of Fallot; VSD, ventricular septal defect.