Table 13

Renal malformations

Renal malformationsFrequencyReference
*Included in unilateral renal agenesis.
Unilateral renal agenesis22 (18.8%)3,9,14,18–21,24,28 (three cases),35,38,41,43,45 (four cases),51,52,54
Unilateral renal agenesis with agenesis of ureter 4 (3.4%)32 (two cases),44,45
Bilateral renal agenesis 6 (5.1%) 12, 15, 16, 19, 39, 44
Bilateral renal agenesis with agenesis of ureters21 (17.9%)4 (seven cases),7,11,16 (two cases),19,21,29,31,34,36,40–42,53
Cystic dysplasia of kidneys or renal cysts14 (12%)4 (four cases),9,17,19,32,36,44–46,50 (two cases)
Unilateral or bilateral renal hypoplasia or small kidneys14 (12%)3,4 (three cases),8,9,17,27,29,32 (two cases),49,50 (two cases)
Absent, hypoplastic, or small bladder with or without urethra20 (17%)4 (four cases),7,11,16 (two cases),19,21,36 (two cases),39,40,42,44 (two cases),45,50,53
Agenesis of entire urinary apparatus 29
Solitary pelvic kidney* 20, 24
Bilateral renal artery agenesis 41
Enlarged kidneys 50
Duplex left kidney system/two left ureters 3, 26
Hydronephrosis 4, 36
Renal dysplasia45 (two cases),49
Hypertrophied or thick bladder 4, 17
Bladder pseudexstrophy 54
Anterior urethral atresia with deformed urinary bladder, bilateral hydronephrosis, and dilated ureters and umbilical discharge of urine 46