Table 9

Malformations of the airway and lungs

Airway malformationFrequencyReference
*Downward/caudal displacement of the diaphragm, flat hemidiaphragm, and abnormalities of the diaphragm.
Choanal stenosis/atresia 7 (6.0%)4,13,20,24,28 (two cases),41
Laryngeal stenosis or atresia, narrow laryngeal vestibule36 (30.8%)3 (two cases),4 (eight cases),9,11,12,14,16 (three cases),17,19,21,36 (three cases),38–41 (two cases),44 (two cases),45,47–49,53,54
Stenosis at or below glottis (subglottic stenosis)10 (8.5%)4 (two cases),8,26,28 (four cases),29,35
Hypoplastic epiglottis 2 (1.7%) 37, 47
Tracheal atresia/abnormality 3 (2.6%) 35, 43, 53
Enlarged, hypertrophic, or hyperechoic lungs10 (8.5%)4,19,21,29,36 (two cases),44 (two cases),47,53
Hypoplasia of the lungs13 (11.1%)4 (five cases),7,11,16 (two cases),32,39,50 (two cases)
Abnormal lung lobation 5 (4.3%)7,21,40,44 (two cases)
Abnormal diaphragm/placement* 5 (4.3%)21,43,44 (two cases),53
Hoarse voice 35
Laryngeal stridor 8, 14
Unable to intubate 4, 16, 35
Absent pillar left tonsil 37
Fusion of arytenoids 3, 8, 14