Table 8

Malformations of the ear

Ear malformationFrequency (%)References
Malformed and/or low set ears, can be with posterior rotation63 (53.8%)3 (two cases),4 (nine cases),7–12,14,15 (two cases),17–19 (four cases),20,16 (three cases),21,23,24,26 (two cases),28 (two cases),31,32 (two cases),33,36 (three cases),37,39,41 (two cases),42,44 (two cases),46–49,51,52 (three cases),56,63,64,68
Fusion of the ear helix to scalp 3 (2.6%) 9, 13, 25
Microtia19 (16.2%)4,9–12,18,25,26 (two cases),27,28 (two cases),36–38,41,44,52,64
Atresia/stenosis of the external auditory canals21 (17.9%)3 (two cases),4,8–11,14,16 (two cases),21,28 (four cases),37,40,41,44,45,47
Deafness/abnormal BAERs 7 (6.0%)9,10,14,28 (three cases),37
Abnormal ossicles 13, 14
Small or absent tympanic membranes 10, 4
Anomalous ears 35
Two accessory tragi 56
Unilateral cholesteatoma 28