Table 7

Nasal malformations

Nasal malformationFrequencyReferences
*Abnormal nose, hooked nose, beaked nose, gryphoid nose, splayed nose, downturned nasal tip.
Broad nose and/or nasal bridge24 (20.5%)11,16 (two cases),23,28 (two cases),30,32 (two cases),37–39,44,49,50 (two cases),51,52 (three cases),54,59,68,69
Depressed or flat nasal bridge13 (11.1%)10,22,30,38,39,44,50,52 (three cases),54,55,68,69
Bifid nose, midline groove, or dimple to nasal tip18 (15.4%)8,9,13,16,19,25,30,33,37,42,43,51,52 (three cases),62 (two cases),68
Coloboma of nares/notched nares13 (11.1%) 3, 8, 9, 11, 15, 16, 22, 23, 27, 28, 42, 51, 52
Small, short, and/or flat nose16 (13.7%)4 (five cases),10,11,19 (three case),16 (three cases),38,50,51
Nasal hypoplasia/small nostrils/hypoplasia of nasal root or bridge15 (12.8%)14,16 (two cases),18,28 (two cases),32,36,39,45 (five cases),49,52
Non-specific abnormalites of nasal shape* 9 (7.7%)14 (two cases),19,32 (two cases),31,35,44,48
Single nostril/absence of nasal septum 3, 55
Atresia of the nose 45
Widely set or widely flared nostrils 24, 28
Deviated nasal septum, asymmetrical alae 37, 69