Table 4

CO and other ocular malformations

CO/ocular malformationFrequencyReference
Tongue of hair40 (34.2%)3 (two cases), 8,9,11 (two cases), 16 (two cases) 19–22,32,33,37,38,42,51,52 (three cases), 56–58 (three cases), 6062 (six cases), 63,66 (two cases), 67–69
Absent eyelashes/eyebrows or alopecia of eyebrows34 (29.1%)3,4,10,11 (two cases), 14,18–20,16 (two cases), 21,25,32,37,39,42,45,48,49,60,51,52 (two cases), 58 (three cases), 61,63,66 (two cases), 67–69
Coloboma of eyelid21 (17.9%)3,14,21,23,27,30,42,43,49,52 (two cases),56,58,60,62 (four cases),64,66,68
Groove in frontal bone/furrow to forehead/temporal depression10 (8.5%) 3, 8, 16, 19, 27, 59, 60, 63, 64, 68
Microphthalmia25 (21.4%)55–58,3,12,4 (three cases),17–19 (two cases),20,21,63,36 (two cases),41–43,66 (two cases),52,69
Anophthalmia 7 (6.0%)3,4,34,45 (three cases),62
Corneal opacification/corneal clouding/sclerocornea12 (10.3%) 4, 16, 27, 33, 37, 43, 49, 58, 60, 62, 64, 67
Microcornea/absence of the cornea/corneal epithelial defect 3 (2.6%) 16, 41, 58
Abnormal anterior chamber/absence of the anterior structures 6 (5.1%)11 (two cases),18,41,52,67,69
Hypoplasia of the optic nerve/atrophy of optic nerve 6 (5.1%)4 (two cases),11,24,25,52
Symblepharon/oculopalpebral synechiae17 (14.5%)4,5,8,16,30,37,39,43,47,49,60 (two cases),61,62,64,65,68
Orbital or corneal dermoid 5, 27
Skin tag over left eye37
Coloboma unstated38
Ocular coloboma 5, 21, 41
Cataracts41