Table 2

Congenital malformations and medical problems

Malformation/medical problem No of children Anticonvulsant exposure, mg (weeks of gestation)
Neural tube defect
 Lumbosacral meningocele1V 1000(0–5),800(5–40)
 Arnold-Chiari malformation type 11V 1200(1–17),1500(17–26),2000(26–40)
Congenital heart disease
 Septal defects3 (1 VSD, 2 unspecified)V 2000(0–40)+Vig 1000(0–40)
V 5000(0–40)+C 2000(0–40)+Clob
V 2000(0–10),3000(10–40)+C 4000(10–40)
 Aortic root dilatation and thick mitral valve as a neonate1C 400
Genitourinary
 Cryptorchidism4V 1500(0–40). V 1500(0–40).V 1500(0–40).
 V 1000(0–40)
 Hypospadias2V 1500(0–40). V 3000(0–40)+C 600(0–40)
 Pelvoureteric junction obstruction1V 1000(0–5),800(5–40).
Extremities
 Nail hypoplasia126 V. 2 C+P+Clob. 2 P. 1 C. 1 V+Clob
 Digit hypoplasia43 V. 1 P
 Polydactyly2 (preaxial)V 1000(0–40). V 1500(0–40)
 Syndactyly2 (3/4 and 2/3)V 1000(0–40). V 600(0–26).1200(26–40)+Clob
Upper airway
 Narrow/high palate94 V. 2 C+P+Clob. 1 P. 1 P+Phenobarb.
 1 V+Clob
 Subglottic stenosis2V 1500(0–40). C 600(0–6)
 Bifid uvula2P 200(0–40). C 600(0–6)
 Polyp on vocal cord1C 600(0–6)
Eyes (see text)
 Brown syndrome1V 700(0–40)
 Congenital cataracts1V 800(0–40)
Teeth
 Small3 (1 peg-like)V 1700(0–40). V 1000(0–40). V 200(0–10),  400–1200(35–40)
 Notched1V 1000(0–40).
 Late eruption (18 months)1V 2000(0–10),3000(10–40)+C4000(10–40).
 Mottling and discolouration1V1000(0–22)+P200(23–26).
Joints
 Laxity4024 V. 4 P. 2 C. 3 V+C. 2 V+ Clob. 2 V+Vig. 2 V+C+Clob. 1 V+Gaba.
 Talipes equinovarus76 V. 1 C+V+Clob.
 Congenital dislocation of the hips1C 400.
 Contractures of fingers (1 also had elbow contractures)3P 300(0–40)+Phenobarb 60(0–40). V  1500(0–40). V 1500(0–40).
Hernias5 (2 bilateral, 1 unilateral inguinal, 2 unknown)4 V, 1 C.
Diastasis recti1V 1200(0–40)
Skin
 Haemangiomata4 (trunk, thigh, eyelid)3 V. 1 V+P.
 Brown naevus1V 2000(0–40)+Clob 20(8–40).
Glue ear19 (18 grommets)15 V. 1 V+Vig. 1 V+Clob. 1 V+C. 1 P.
  • V = valproate, C = carbamazepine, P = phenytoin, Vig = vigabatrin, Clob = clobazam, Phenobarb = phenobarbitone, Gaba = gabapentin.