Background Methylmalonic acidemia (MMA), which results from defects in methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (mut type) or its cofactor, is the most common inherited organic acid metabolic disease in China. This study aimed to investigate the phenotype and genotype of mut-type MMA in Chinese patients.
Methods We recruited 365 patients with mut-type MMA; investigated their disease onset, newborn screening (NBS) status, biochemical metabolite levels, gene variations and prognosis; and explored the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
Results There were 152 patients diagnosed by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) expanded NBS, 209 patients diagnosed because of disease onset without NBS and 4 cases diagnosed because of sibling diagnosis. The median age of onset was 15 days old, with a variety of symptoms without specificity. Urinary levels of methylmalonic acid and methylcitric acid (MCA) decreased after treatment. Regarding the prognosis, among the 152 patients with NBS, 50.6% were healthy, 30.3% had neurocognitive impairment and/or movement disorders and 13.8% died. Among the 209 patients without NBS, 15.3% were healthy, 45.9% had neurocognitive impairment and/or movement disorders and 33.0% died. In total, 179 variants were detected in the MMUT gene, including 52 novel variations. c.729_730insTT, c.1106G>A, c.323G>A, c.914T>C and c.1663G>A were the five most frequent variations. The c.1663G>A variation led to a milder phenotype and better prognosis.
Conclusion There is a wide spectrum of variations in the MMUT gene with several common variations. Although the overall prognosis of mut-type MMA was poor, participation in MS/MS expanded NBS, vitamin B12 responsive and late onset are favourable factors for the prognosis.
- neonatal screening
Data availability statement
All data relevant to the study are included in the article or uploaded as supplementary information.
Statistics from Altmetric.com
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.