Background Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare genetic disorder resulting in abnormal ciliary motility/structure, extremely heterogeneous at genetic and ultrastructural levels. We aimed, in light of extensive genotyping, to identify specific and quantitative ciliary beating anomalies, according to the ultrastructural phenotype.
Methods We prospectively included 75 patients with PCD exhibiting the main five ultrastructural phenotypes (n=15/group), screened all corresponding PCD genes and measured quantitative beating parameters by high-speed video-microscopy (HSV).
Results Sixty-eight (91%) patients carried biallelic mutations. Combined outer/inner dynein arms (ODA/IDA) defect induces total ciliary immotility, regardless of the gene involved. ODA defect induces a residual beating with dramatically low ciliary beat frequency (CBF) related to increased recovery stroke and pause durations, especially in case of DNAI1 mutations. IDA defect with microtubular disorganisation induces a low percentage of beating cilia with decreased beating angle and, in case of CCDC39 mutations, a relatively conserved mean CBF with a high maximal CBF. Central complex defect induces nearly normal beating parameters, regardless of the gene involved, and a gyrating motion in a minority of ciliated edges, especially in case of RSPH1 mutations. PCD with normal ultrastructure exhibits heterogeneous HSV values, but mostly an increased CBF with an extremely high maximal CBF.
Conclusion Quantitative HSV analysis in PCD objectives beating anomalies associated with specific ciliary ultrastructures and genotypes. It represents a promising approach to guide the molecular analyses towards the best candidate gene(s) to be analysed or to assess the pathogenicity of the numerous sequence variants identified by next-generation-sequencing.
- primary ciliary dyskinesia
- electron microscopy
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Contributors Conception and design of the study: SB, ML, EE, JFP, BL. Acquisition, analysis and interpretation of data: SB, ML, MB, AT, GM, ST, NC, CF, FD, BC, ACl, MF, ACo, SA, EE, JFP, BL. Writing or substantial involvement in revision: SB, ML, SA, EE, JFP, BL.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests None declared.
Patient consent for publication Not required.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
Data availability statement Data are available on reasonable request.
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