Article Text

other Versions

Download PDFPDF
Genome wide linkage scan for loci of musical aptitude in Finnish families:Evidence for a major locus at 4q22
  1. Kristiina Pulli (kristiina.pulli{at}
  1. University of Helsinki, Finland
    1. Kai Karma (kai.karma{at}
    1. The Sibelius Academy, Finland
      1. Reijo Norio (reijo.norio{at}
      1. The Family Federation of Finland, Helsinki, Finland
        1. Pertti Sistonen (pertti.sistonen{at}
        1. Red Cross Finland Blood Service, Helsinki, Finland
          1. Harald H Göring (hgoring{at}
          1. Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, San Antonio, United States
            1. Irma E Järvelä (irma.jarvela{at}
            1. University of Helsinki, Finland


              Background: Music perception and performance are comprehensive human cognitive functions and thus provide an excellent model system for studying human behaviour and brain function. However, the molecules involved in mediating music perception and performance are so far uncharacterized.

              Objective and methods: We have applied molecular and statistical genetic approaches to unravel the biological background of music perception. We recruited 15 Finnish multigenerational families (with a total of 234 family members) via a nationwide search and defined the phenotype of all family members using three tests used in defining musical aptitude: a test for auditory structuring ability (Karma Music test; KMT) commonly used in Finland, and the Seashore pitch and time discrimination subtests (SP and ST respectively) used internationally. We calculated heritabilities and performed a genome wide variance components-based linkage scan using genotype data for 1000 microsatellite markers.

              Results: The heritability estimates were 42% for KMT, 57% for SP, 21% for ST and 48% for the combined music test scores. Significant evidence of linkage was obtained on chromosome 4q22 (LOD 3.33) and suggestive evidence of linkage at 8q13-21 (LOD 2.29) with the combined music test scores using variance component (VC) linkage analyses. The major contribution for the 4q22 locus was obtained with KMT (LOD 2.91). Interestingly, a positive LOD score of 1.69 was shown at 18q, a region previously linked to dyslexia (DYX6), using combined music test scores.

              Conclusion: Our results show that there is a genetic contribution to musical aptitude that is likely to be regulated by several predisposing genes/variants.

              Statistics from

              Request Permissions

              If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.