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Original research
Clinical and genetic spectrum of RNF216-related disorder: a new case and literature review

Abstract

Background Cases of RNF216-related disorder have been reported sporadically. However, the clinical and genetic spectrum of this disorder has not been fully studied.

Methods We identified an individual with a novel causative RNF216 variant in our institution and reviewed all individuals with causative RNF216 variants in previous reports. The clinical and genetic features of all the described individuals were analysed and summarised.

Results Twenty-four individuals from 17 families with causative RNF216 variants were identified. The mean age at the onset of neurological symptoms was 29.2 years (range 18–49 years). Ataxia (57%) was the most frequent initial symptoms in individuals under 30 years old, while chorea (63%) was the most frequent initial symptom in individuals over 30 years old. Over 90% of individuals presented with cognitive impairment and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism throughout the disease. White matter lesions (96%) and cerebellar atrophy (92%) were the most common imaging findings. Twenty pathogenic variants in RNF216 were detected. The variants in 12 (71%) families were inherited in a monogenic recessive pattern, whereas the variants in 5 (29%) were inherited in a digenic pattern by acting with variants in other genes. The majority of the RNF216 variants (85%) resulted in amino acid changes or the truncation of the ‘RING between RING’ (RBR) domain or C-terminal extension.

Conclusion RNF216-related disorder is an inherited neuroendocrine disease characterised by cerebellar ataxia, chorea, cognitive impairment and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Most causative variants in patients with RNF216-related disorder influence the RBR domain or C-terminal extension of RNF216.

  • Neurology
  • Genetic Heterogeneity
  • Phenotype
  • Genotype
  • Endocrine System Diseases

Data availability statement

All data relevant to the study are included in the article or uploaded as supplementary information.

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