Purpose In this study, we describe the phenotype and genotype of the largest cohort of patients with Joubert syndrome (JS) carrying pathogenic variants on one of the most frequent causative genes, CC2D2A.
Methods We selected 53 patients with pathogenic variants on CC2D2A, compiled and analysed their clinical, neuroimaging and genetic information and compared it to previous literature.
Results Developmental delay (motor and language) was nearly constant but patients had normal intellectual efficiency in 74% of cases (20/27 patients) and 68% followed mainstream schooling despite learning difficulties. Epilepsy was found in only 13% of cases. Only three patients had kidney cysts, only three had genuine retinal dystrophy and no subject had liver fibrosis or polydactyly. Brain MRIs showed typical signs of JS with rare additional features. Genotype–phenotype correlation findings demonstrate a homozygous truncating variant p.Arg950* linked to a more severe phenotype.
Conclusion This study contradicts previous literature stating an association between CC2D2A-related JS and ventriculomegaly. Our study implies that CC2D2A-related JS is linked to positive neurodevelopmental outcome and low rate of other organ defects except for homozygous pathogenic variant p.Arg950*. This information will help modulate patient follow-up and provide families with accurate genetic counselling.
- cerebellar diseases
- genetic testing
- nervous system malformations
Data availability statement
Data sharing not applicable as no datasets generated and/or analysed for this study.
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