Background Syngnathia is an ultrarare craniofacial malformation characterised by an inability to open the mouth due to congenital fusion of the upper and lower jaws. The genetic causes of isolated bony syngnathia are unknown.
Methods We used whole exome and Sanger sequencing and microsatellite analysis in six patients (from four families) presenting with syngnathia. We used CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing to generate vgll2a and vgll4l germline mutant zebrafish, and performed craniofacial cartilage analysis in homozygous mutants.
Results We identified homozygous truncating variants in vestigial-like family member 2 (VGLL2) in all six patients. Two alleles were identified: one in families of Turkish origin and the other in families of Moroccan origin, suggesting a founder effect for each. A shared haplotype was confirmed for the Turkish patients. The VGLL family of genes encode cofactors of TEAD transcriptional regulators. Vgll2 is regionally expressed in the pharyngeal arches of model vertebrate embryos, and morpholino-based knockdown of vgll2a in zebrafish has been reported to cause defects in development of pharyngeal arch cartilages. However, we did not observe craniofacial anomalies in vgll2a or vgll4l homozygous mutant zebrafish nor in fish with double knockout of vgll2a and vgll4l. In Vgll2 −/− mice, which are known to present a skeletal muscle phenotype, we did not identify defects of the craniofacial skeleton.
Conclusion Our results suggest that although loss of VGLL2 leads to a striking jaw phenotype in humans, other vertebrates may have the capacity to compensate for its absence during craniofacial development.
- congenital, hereditary, and neonatal diseases and abnormalities
Data availability statement
Data are available upon reasonable request. All data that support the findings of this study are available on request from the corresponding authors.
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