Background The clinical significance of 16p13.11 duplications remains controversial while frequently detected in patients with developmental delay (DD), intellectual deficiency (ID) or autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Previously reported patients were not or poorly characterised. The absence of consensual recommendations leads to interpretation discrepancy and makes genetic counselling challenging. This study aims to decipher the genotype–phenotype correlations to improve genetic counselling and patients’ medical care.
Methods We retrospectively analysed data from 16 013 patients referred to 12 genetic centers for DD, ID or ASD, and who had a chromosomal microarray analysis. The referring geneticists of patients for whom a 16p13.11 duplication was detected were asked to complete a questionnaire for detailed clinical and genetic data for the patients and their parents.
Results Clinical features are mainly speech delay and learning disabilities followed by ASD. A significant risk of cardiovascular disease was noted. About 90% of the patients inherited the duplication from a parent. At least one out of four parents carrying the duplication displayed a similar phenotype to the propositus. Genotype–phenotype correlations show no impact of the size of the duplicated segment on the severity of the phenotype. However, NDE1 and miR-484 seem to have an essential role in the neurocognitive phenotype.
Conclusion Our study shows that 16p13.11 microduplications are likely pathogenic when detected in the context of DD/ID/ASD and supports an essential role of NDE1 and miR-484 in the neurocognitive phenotype. Moreover, it suggests the need for cardiac evaluation and follow-up and a large study to evaluate the aortic disease risk.
- neurodevelopmental disorder
- 16p13.11 duplication
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Contributors LAEK and EP: designed the study and collected the data. LAEK, SH and EP: analysed the data and wrote the manuscript. MDF, CV-D, AA, OB-B, MPC, LF, CF, MG, AG, AM-P, AM, MM-D, GL, MR, PE, AD-D, LDP, SCE, LS, CI, CF-F, PG and CL: performed the clinical evaluation of the patients. LAEK, SH, J-HC, JA, PC, SC-B, A-LM-B, NM, NLM, GP, ACT, AL, AN, CM, AR, CY, PV, DS, JMD, BB and EP: performed the genetic investigations. All authors revised and approved the final version.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests None declared.
Ethics approval French Ethical Board.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
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