Article Text

Download PDFPDF
Applications and advances of CRISPR-Cas9 in cancer immunotherapy
  1. An-Liang Xia1,2,
  2. Qi-Feng He1,2,
  3. Jin-Cheng Wang1,2,
  4. Jing Zhu3,
  5. Ye-Qin Sha3,
  6. Beicheng Sun2,
  7. Xiao-Jie Lu1
  1. 1 Department of General Surgery, Liver Transplantation Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China
  2. 2 Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, The Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, China
  3. 3 Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China
  1. Correspondence to Dr Xiao-Jie Lu, Department of General Surgery, Liver Transplantation Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210009, China; 189{at}


Immunotherapy has emerged as one of the most promising therapeutic strategies in cancer. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-associated protein 9 (CRISPR-Cas9) system, as an RNA-guided genome editing technology, is triggering a revolutionary change in cancer immunotherapy. With its versatility and ease of use, CRISPR-Cas9 can be implemented to fuel the production of therapeutic immune cells, such as construction of chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cells and programmed cell death protein 1 knockout. Therefore, CRISPR-Cas9 technology holds great promise in cancer immunotherapy. In this review, we will introduce the origin, development and mechanism of CRISPR-Cas9. Also, we will focus on its various applications in cancer immunotherapy, especially CAR-T cell-based immunotherapy, and discuss the potential challenges it faces.

  • crispr-cas9
  • genome editing
  • car-t cells
  • cancer immunotherapy
  • gene therapy

Statistics from


  • A-LX, Q-FH and J-CW contributed equally.

  • Contributors XJL conceived the idea. A-LX drafted the manuscript. Q-FH, J-CW, JZ and Y-QS contributed to performing the literature collection. BS and X-JL directed and approved the manuscript. All the authors gave the final approval of the manuscript submission.

  • Funding This work was supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation (grant number: 81772596 to X-JL).

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent Not required.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.