Article Text

Genome-wide linkage scan for loci of musical aptitude in Finnish families: evidence for a major locus at 4q22
  1. K Pulli1,
  2. K Karma2,
  3. R Norio3,
  4. P Sistonen4,
  5. H H H Göring5,
  6. I Järvelä1,6
  1. 1
    Department of Medical Genetics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
  2. 2
    Department of Music Education, Sibelius Academy, Helsinki, Finland
  3. 3
    Department of Medical Genetics, Family Federation of Finland, Helsinki, Finland
  4. 4
    Red Cross Finland Blood Service, Helsinki, Finland
  5. 5
    Department of Genetics, Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, San Antonio, USA
  6. 6
    Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
  1. Associate Professor I Järvelä, Department of Medical Genetics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; irma.jarvela{at}


Background: Music perception and performance are comprehensive human cognitive functions and thus provide an excellent model system for studying human behaviour and brain function. However, the molecules involved in mediating music perception and performance are so far uncharacterised.

Objective: To unravel the biological background of music perception, using molecular and statistical genetic approaches.

Methods: 15 Finnish multigenerational families (with a total of 234 family members) were recruited via a nationwide search. The phenotype of all family members was determined using three tests used in defining musical aptitude: a test for auditory structuring ability (Karma Music test; KMT) commonly used in Finland, and the Seashore pitch and time discrimination subtests (SP and ST respectively) used internationally. We calculated heritabilities and performed a genome-wide variance components-based linkage scan using genotype data for 1113 microsatellite markers.

Results: The heritability estimates were 42% for KMT, 57% for SP, 21% for ST and 48% for the combined music test scores. Significant evidence of linkage was obtained on chromosome 4q22 (LOD 3.33) and suggestive evidence of linkage at 8q13-21 (LOD 2.29) with the combined music test scores, using variance component linkage analyses. The major contribution of the 4q22 locus was obtained for the KMT (LOD 2.91). Interestingly, a positive LOD score of 1.69 was shown at 18q, a region previously linked to dyslexia (DYX6) using combined music test scores.

Conclusion: Our results show that there is a genetic contribution to musical aptitude that is likely to be regulated by several predisposing genes or variants.

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  • Competing interests: None.