Wilms tumour has been reported in association with over 50 different clinical conditions and several abnormal constitutional karyotypes. Conclusive evidence of an increased risk of Wilms tumour exists for only a minority of these conditions, including WT1 associated syndromes, familial Wilms tumour, and certain overgrowth conditions such as Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. In many reported conditions the rare co-occurrence of Wilms tumour is probably due to chance. However, for several conditions the available evidence cannot either confirm or exclude an increased risk, usually because of the rarity of the syndrome. In addition, emerging evidence suggests that an increased risk of Wilms tumour occurs only in a subset of individuals for some syndromes. The complex clinical and molecular heterogeneity of disorders associated with Wilms tumour, together with the apparent absence of functional links between most of the known predisposition genes, suggests that abrogation of a variety of pathways can promote Wilms tumorigenesis.
- BWS, Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome
- IHH, isolated hemihypertrophy
- WAGR, Wilms-aniridia-genitourinary-mental retardation
- Wilms tumour
- overgrowth syndrome
- tumour predisposition
- karyotypic abnormality
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Published Online First 11 May 2006
Conflicts of interest: none declared
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