Article Text

Download PDFPDF
Mulibrey nanism: clinical features and diagnostic criteria


Mulibrey nanism (MUL) is an autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in the TRIM37 gene encoding the peroxisomal TRIM37 protein of unknown function. In this work, we analysed the clinical characteristics of 85 Finnish patients with MUL, most of whom were homozygous for the Finn major mutation of TRIM37. The patients’ hospital records from birth to the time of the diagnosis at age 0.02–52 years (median 2.1 years) were retrospectively analysed. All except four of the patients (95%) had a prenatal onset growth failure without postnatal catch up growth. The mean length standard deviation score (SDS) was −3.1 and −4.0 at birth and at diagnosis, respectively. In infancy, feeding difficulties, and respiratory tract infections were the most common problems. Congestive heart failure and pericardial constriction were diagnosed during infancy in 12% and 6% of the patients, respectively. At the time of the diagnosis, characteristic craniofacial features of scaphocephaly, facial triangularity, high and broad forehead, and low nasal bridge were evident in over 90% of the patients. In addition, practically all patients were gracile and had thin extremities. Other findings included a peculiar high-pitched voice (96%), yellowish dots in ocular fundi (79%), cutaneous naevi flammei (65%), hepatomegaly (45%), and fibrous dysplasia of long bones (25%). Mild muscular hypotonicity (68%) was the only neurological abnormality. The clinical features of the Finnish patients with MUL formed a distinct entity. The most consistent findings were growth failure and characteristic craniofacial features. However, organ manifestations varied considerably in early childhood. Based on these findings, we propose new diagnostic criteria for MUL.

  • Mulibrey nanism
  • prenatal growth failure
  • dysmorphism
  • hypoplasia
  • hepatomegaly
  • SDS, standard deviation score
  • SGA, small for gestational age
  • SRS, Silver-Russell syndrome

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.