Eighteen human congenital melanocytic naevi (CMN) from 17 patients were screened for activating point mutations in the oncogenesN-ras andCDK4 and for sequence variants in the MC1R gene by combined RFLP-PCR/SSCP analysis. In addition, all lesions were screened for deletions and point mutations in the tumour suppressor genesp53 andp16INK4a (CDKN2A) by combined multiplex PCR/SSCP analysis. Positive screening data were specified by sequencing of the corresponding PCR product. Activating point mutations in theN-ras gene (nine CAA (Gln) to AAA (Lys) transversions and one CAA (Gln) to CGA (Arg) transition at codon 61) were detected at high frequency (56%). Furthermore, three missense mutations (V92M) and two silent mutations (CGA (Arg) to CGG (Arg), codon 213, exon 6) were found in theMC1R andp53 genes, respectively. No mutations were found in p16 orCDK4. The activatedN-ras oncogene, which is also found in human cutaneous melanomas, may constitute a potential risk factor for melanoma formation within CMN.
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