Three cases of Down syndrome (DS) are reported in association with features of the androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS). All were 47, XY, +21 and reared as females. One case had a normal female phenotype, and two cases showed minimal clitoromegaly and labial fusion. Minor genital underdevelopment has been reported as common in males with DS; however, AIS has not previously been associated with DS. Androgen binding studies in genital skin fibroblasts were normal in two cases and in the 46,XY brother of the third who has perineal hypospadias. Mutation screening of the androgen receptor (AR) gene by PCR-SSCP was normal in all cases. Normal androgen binding and the absence of an identified mutation in the coding region of the AR gene is very unusual in AIS, particularly in the complete form. This finding suggests the operation of hitherto unrecognised genes on chromosome 21 with a role in androgen response and sex differentiation.
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