Candidate genes and marker loci for cleft lip/palate (CL/P) were tested using linkage analyses and association studies. Eight British families with apparent autosomal dominant inheritance of non-syndromic CL/P participated in the linkage analyses while the association analyses involved 61 unrelated British white people with CL/P and 60 controls. The report of an association between RARA (17q21) and unrelated Australian persons with CL/P (p = 0.016) was not confirmed in British CL/P persons (chi 2 = 0.954, p > 0.1). There was also no evidence of linkage between RARA and the eight CL/P families (Z = -3.211, theta = 0.001). Linkage was excluded between familial CL/P and F13A1 (map position 6p24-25) with an observed maximum lod score of Z = -2.052 at theta = 0.05. No association was found between alleles at VIM (10p13) and the British CL/P subjects (chi 2 = 0.110, p > 0.5). Multipoint analysis excluded linkage between familial CL/P and the markers D1S65 and D1S58 which flank the Van der Woude syndrome locus with a maximum lod score of Z = -4.0. This suggests that the genetic defect underlying VWS is not the same as in non-syndromic CL/P. There was no evidence of linkage between CRTL1 (5q15) and the eight CL/P families (Z = -3.466, theta = 0.05).
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