A 2-year-old boy with mental and growth retardation is presented; he has a 46,XY,r(10)(p15q26) chromosome complement. Five previously reported cases of ring chromosome 10 were reviewed and compared with the present case in an attempt to delineate a clinical syndrome. Since the first description, identified by Giemsa banding by Lansky et al, four other r(10) patients have been described. Their common features were mental and growth retardation, low birth weight, microcephaly, stubby nose, hypertelorism, strabismus, wide set nipples, single transverse palmar creases, undescended testes, and hypoplastic scrotum. In some of the cases congenital heart disease was present.
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