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A family study of craniosynostosis, with probable recognition of a distinct syndrome.
  1. C O Carter,
  2. K Till,
  3. V Fraser,
  4. R Coffey


    A family study was based on 184 consecutive patients who had undergone surgery for craniosynostosis at The Hospital for Sick Children, London, between 1953 and 1976. Of these, 127 were traced and visited and are the probands for this study. Crouzon syndrome was recognised in 16, Apert in 11, Saethre-Chotzen in nine, and Pfeiffer in two. In addition, two probands had Saethre-Chotzen-like facies and bilaterally broad big toes owing to partial or complete duplication of the distal phalanx. This syndrome is distinct from Pfeiffer syndrome, in which the facies more closely resembles that in Crouzon syndrome and in which it is the proximal phalanx of the big toe (and often of the thumb) which is abnormal. It is suggested that this newly recognised syndrome be called after Robinow and Sorauf, who appear to be the first to have described a family with the condition. One proband with coronal stenosis had a mother and brother affected, but no syndrome was recognised in them. Excluding this last case, no non-syndromic proband had an affected parent. The 58 probands with predominantly sagittal synostosis had 106 sibs, none of whom was affected. The 21 probands with predominantly coronal synostosis included one sib pair both affected; the remaining 17 sibs were unaffected. The four probands with predominantly metopic stenosis had 13 unaffected sibs and the four with multiple sutures involved had eight unaffected sibs. One sagittal proband had an unaffected monozygotic twin and another an unaffected dizygotic twin.

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