Article Text

other Versions


Genotypes and phenotypes in children with short stature: clinical indicators of SHOX haploinsufficiency
  1. Gudrun Rappold (gudrun.rappold{at}
  1. Department of Molecular Human Genetics, University of Heidelberg, Germany
    1. Werner F. Blum (blum_werner{at}
    1. University Children’s Hospital, Giessen ; Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Company,, Germany
      1. Elena P. Shavrikova (elena.shavrikova{at}
      1. Pharma Support Inc., St. Petersburg, Russian Federation
        1. Brenda J. Crowe (crowe_brenda{at}
        1. Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, United States
          1. Ralph Roeth (ralph.roeth{at}
          1. Department of Molecular Human Genetics, University of Heidelberg, Germany
            1. Charmian A. Quigley (quigley_charmian{at}
            1. Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Company, United States
              1. Judith L. Ross (judith.ross{at}
              1. Department of Pediatrics, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, United States
                1. Beate Niesler (beate.niesler{at}
                1. Department of Molecular Human Genetics, University of Heidelberg, Germany


                  Introduction: Short stature affects approximately 2% of children, representing one of the more frequent disorders for which clinical attention is sought during childhood. Despite assumed genetic heterogeneity, mutations or deletions of the Short Stature Homeobox-containing gene (SHOX) are found quite frequently in subjects with short stature. Haploinsufficiency of the SHOX gene causes short stature with highly variable clinical severity, ranging from isolated short stature without dysmorphic features to Léri-Weill syndrome and, with no functional copy of the SHOX gene, Langer syndrome.

                  Methods and Results: To characterize the clinical and molecular spectrum of SHOX deficiency in childhood we assessed the association between genotype and phenotype in a large cohort of short-statured children from 14 countries. Screening of 1608 unrelated individuals with sporadic or familial short stature revealed SHOX mutations or deletions in 68 individuals (4.2%): complete deletions in 48 (70.6%), partial deletions in 4 (5.9%) and point mutations in 16 subjects (23.5%). While mean height standard deviation score (SDS) was not different between short-stature subjects with or without identified SHOX gene defects (-2.6 versus -2.6), detailed examination revealed that certain bone deformities and dysmorphic signs, such as short forearm and lower leg, cubitus valgus, Madelung deformity, high-arched palate and muscular hypertrophy, differed significantly between subjects with or without SHOX gene defects (p<0.001).

                  Discussion: Phenotypic data were also compared for 33 children with Turner syndrome in whom haploinsufficiency of SHOX is thought to be responsible for the height deficit. A phenotype scoring system was developed that may assist in identifying the most appropriate subjects for SHOX testing. This study offers a detailed genotype-phenotype analysis in a large cohort of children with short stature and provides quantitative clinical guidelines for testing of the SHOX gene.

                  • Idiopathic short stature
                  • Langer Syndrome
                  • Léri-Weill Syndrome
                  • Turner Syndrome
                  • chondrocytes

                  Statistics from

                  Request permissions

                  If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.