Deregulation of EIF4E: a novel mechanism for autism
- M Neves-Pereira1,
- B Müller2,
- D Massie3,
- J H G Williams1,
- P C M O’Brien4,
- A Hughes1,
- S-B Shen2,
- David St Clair1,
- Z Miedzybrodzka1,3
- 1School of Medicine, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill, Aberdeen, UK
- 2School of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill, Aberdeen, UK
- 3Department of Medical Genetics, NHS Grampian, Foresterhill, Aberdeen, UK
- 4Molecular Cytogenetics Group, Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, UK
- Correspondence to Dr Z Miedzybrodzka, University of Aberdeen, Department of Genetics, Polwarth Building, Foresterhill, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, UK;
- Received 3 February 2009
- Revised 14 April 2009
- Accepted 29 April 2009
- Published Online First 25 June 2009
Background: Autism is a common childhood onset neurodevelopmental disorder, characterised by severe and sustained impairment of social interaction and social communication, as well as a notably restricted repertoire of activities and interests. Its aetiology is multifactorial with a strong genetic basis. EIF4E is the rate limiting component of eukaryotic translation initiation, and plays a key role in learning and memory through its control of translation within the synapse. EIF4E mediated translation is the final common process modulated by the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), PTEN and fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) pathways, which are implicated in autism. Linkage of autism to the EIF4E region on chromosome 4q has been found in genome wide linkage studies.
Methods and results: The authors present evidence that directly implicates EIF4E in autism. In a boy with classic autism, the authors observed a de novo chromosome translocation between 4q and 5q and mapped the breakpoint site to within a proposed alternative transcript of EIF4E. They then screened 120 autism families for mutations and found two unrelated families where in each case both autistic siblings and one of the parents harboured the same single nucleotide insertion at position −25 in the basal element of the EIF4E promoter. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and reporter gene studies show that this mutation enhances binding of a nuclear factor and EIF4E promoter activity.
Conclusions: These observations implicate EIF4E, and more specifically control of EIF4E activity, directly in autism. The findings raise the exciting possibility that pharmacological manipulation of EIF4E may provide therapeutic benefit for those with autism caused by disturbance of the converging pathways controlling EIF4E activity.
▸ Additional table is published online only at http://jmg.bmj.com/content/vol46/issue11
Funding This project was funded by the Scottish Government Chief Scientist Office, NHS Grampian Endowments and an anonymous grant to the University of Aberdeen Development Trust.
Competing interests None declared.
Patient consent Obtained.
Provenance and Peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.