Molecular characterisation of four cases of intrachromosomal triplication of chromosome 15q11-q14
- Paola Ungaroa,
- Susan L Christianb,
- Judy A Fantesa,
- Apiwat Mutirangurac,
- Susan Blackd,
- James Reynoldse,
- Sue Malcolmf,
- William B Dobynsa,
- David H Ledbettera
- aDepartment of Human Genetics, University of Chicago, 920 East 58th Street, Chicago, IL 60637, USA, bDepartment of Psychiatry, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA, cGenetics Unit, Department of Anatomy, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand, dGenetics & IVF Institute, Fairfax, Virginia, USA, eShodair Hospital, Helena, Montana, USA, fClinical and Molecular Genetics Unit, Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, UK
- Dr Ledbetter,
- Revised 21 June 2000
- Accepted 9 October 2000
CONTEXT Chromosomal abnormalities that involve the proximal region of chromosome 15q occur relatively frequently in the human population. However, interstitial triplications involving one 15 homologue are very rare with three cases reported to date.
OBJECTIVE To provide a detailed molecular characterisation of four additional patients with interstitial triplications of chromosome 15q11-q14.
DESIGN Molecular analyses were performed using DNA markers and probes specific for the 15q11-q14 region.
SETTING Molecular cytogenetics laboratory at the University of Chicago.
SUBJECTS Four patients with mild to severe mental retardation and features of Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) or Angelman syndrome (AS) were referred for molecular cytogenetic analysis following identification of a suspected duplication/triplication of chromosome 15q11-q14 by routine cytogenetic analysis.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) was performed to determine the type of chromosomal abnormality present, the extent of the abnormal region, and the orientation of the extra chromosomal segments. Molecular polymorphism analysis was performed to determine the parental origin of the abnormality. Methylation and northern blot analyses of theSNRPN gene were performed to determine the effect of extra copies of the SNRPN gene on its methylation pattern and expression.
RESULTS Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) using probes within and flanking the Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome critical region indicated that all patients carried an intrachromosomal triplication of proximal 15q11-q14 in one of the two chromosome 15 homologues (trip(15)). In all patients the orientation of the triplicated segments was normal-inverted-normal, suggesting that a common mechanism of rearrangement may have been involved. Microsatellite analysis showed the parental origin of the trip(15) to be maternal in three cases and paternal in one case. The paternal triplication patient had features similar to PWS, one maternal triplication patient had features similar to AS, and the other two maternal triplication patients had non-specific findings including hypotonia and mental retardation. Methylation analysis at exon 1 of theSNRPN locus showed increased dosage of either the paternal or maternal bands in the paternal or maternal triplication patients, respectively, suggesting that the methylation pattern shows a dose dependent increase that correlates with the parental origin of the triplication. In addition, the expression ofSNRPN was analysed by northern blotting and expression levels were consistent with dosage and parental origin of the triplication.
CONCLUSIONS These four additional cases of trip(15) will provide additional information towards understanding the phenotypic effects of this abnormality and aid in understanding the mechanism of formation of other chromosome 15 rearrangements.