A female infant who died at 2 years of age with growth and psychomotor retardation, wide anterior fontanelle, downward slanting palpebral fissures, large, simple ears, joint dislocation/contractures, recurrent infections, and severe pulmonary hypertension was found to have a de novo 7p+ chromosome. The G banding pattern was suggestive of a triplication of 7p21.3 and 7p22; results of fluorescence in situ hybridisation studies using a chromosome 7 specific library, a subtelomeric 7p repeat (109A6), and yeast artificial chromosome clones 786g1 and 850a1, which are respectively associated with the (CA)n repeat markers D7S517 and D7S513, supported the cytogenetic interpretation and showed that the middle repeat was inverted. The patient's phenotype was consistent with the 7p duplication syndrome, allowing for the effects of the extra burden introduced by the partial tetrasomy. The present rearrangement may have resulted from several meiotic events occurring at the four chromatid stage, namely an unequal crossover or interhomologue translocation with points of exchange at 7p22 and 7p15 followed by the inverted insertion of 7p21.3-->p21.2 at the former breakpoint junction; moreover, a further duplication including D7S517 within the terminal 7p22 band is also required.
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