Neonates positive for immunoreactive trypsinogen assay (IRT) and negative for sweat test have formerly been found to carry the major cystic fibrosis (CF) mutation, delta F508, much more frequently than the general population. Among the 716 IRT positive newborns detected by a three tier (IRT, mutation analysis plus meconium lactase assay, sweat test) CF screening programme in north eastern Italy during the period January 1993 to March 1996, we found 45 carriers, a number significantly higher than the expected 17 (p < 0.001). We speculated that some of these heterozygotes could actually be affected by a very mild form of CF, and carry on the other chromosome an undetected CFTR mutation or a DNA variant, such as the 5-thymidine allele in intron 8 of the CFTR gene (IVS8-5T). This hypothesis was tested in four samples; group A (the 45 carriers mentioned above), group B (51 non-carrier, IRT positive neonates), group C (50 IRT negative neonates), and group D (90 CF adult female carriers). Chromosomes with IVS8-5T were seven (7.78%) in group A, seven (6.86%) in group B, five (5%) in group C, and four in group D (2.22%). The 5T prevalence in group A was significantly higher (p < 0.05) compared to group D; similarly, a higher (p < 0.05) 5T frequency in group A compared to group C was detected by considering the chromosomes free from CFTR mutations. This study is consistent with previous papers in finding among neonates with high trypsin levels a CF carrier frequency significantly higher than that expected. It is also suggested that in at least some babies raised trypsin levels at birth could be a phenotypic expression of compound heterozygosity for a major CF mutation plus IVS8-5T.