The major cause of the different forms of hyperphenylalaninaemia (HPA) is mutations in the gene encoding phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH). The aim of this study was to determine the mutations responsible for mild forms of HPA and to relate different clinical phenotypes of HPA patients to their PAH genotypes. Four "mild" mutations, including the most frequent A403V and R297H mutations, occurred exclusively in mild hyperphenylalaninaemia (MHP). Mutations A104D, R243Q, R241H, and Y414C were detected in patients with mild phenylketonuria (mild PKU) only. These results may be useful in establishing a molecular differential diagnosis for PAH deficiency in Poland.
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