Multifocal renal cell carcinomas (RCCs), together with angiomyolipomas (AMLs) and renal cysts, were identified in early adult life in two sisters with tuberous sclerosis (TSC). They were members of a multigenerational tuberous sclerosis family showing strong evidence for a mutant TSC causing gene on chromosome 9 (TSC1). Previous reports of multifocal RCC in young patients with TSC suggest that constitutional mutations at the TSC loci may predispose to RCC. In the rat a germline mutation affecting the TSC2 gene is associated with transmission of multifocal RCC as an autosomal dominant trait. However, the cases reported here are the first to suggest a similar role for the TSC1 gene in renal cell carcinogenesis.
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