DNA was analysed from 33 patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency. In each case Southern blots were prepared from a number of restriction enzyme digests and hybridised with probes for both the 21-hydroxylase and the adjacent fourth component of complement (C4). Evidence for deletion of the active 21-hydroxylase gene (CYP21B) was found in 13 cases and in 10 of these the deletion included the adjacent C4B gene, leading to a hybrid CYP21A/CYP21B gene. Deletion of CYP21B alone was found in one patient, the remaining two cases appearing to have the active gene replaced by the inactive pseudogene. Duplications of the CYP21A-C4B region and deletion of the pseudogene are also described. In a further 12 cases no gross abnormality could be found.
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