Phenotype distributions of some genetic polymorphisms are reported in a sample of 721 diabetics and 515 non-diabetic, non-blood donor controls. Reference is also made, in the case of the ABO and Rhesus systems, to previously published results for blood donors resident in the Durham area. Non-insulin-taking diabetics show an increased frequency of blood group A1 (and A1 + A2) when compared with controls. This difference is particularly marked in male diabetics. When diabetics are compared with age matched controls, the difference is confined to the older cases. It is proposed that this effect is predominantly the result of a deficiency of group A1 in controls rather than the result of increased susceptibility to the disease among A1 people. No association with any of the Rhesus phenotypes is shown. In non-diabetics, the results suggest an enhanced survival value for the rr genotype. No significant associations are seen when the MNSs, Kell, Lewis, Duffy, haptoglobin, red cell acid phosphatase, phosphoglucomutase, adenylate kinase, and adenosine deaminase distributions in these groups of subjects are compared.-
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