With combination of C and G banding techniques, three morphologically different types of isochromosome for the long arm of X (Xqi) have been identified, i.e. those with one C-band and symmetrical banding patterns of both arms, those with two C-bands and symmetrical banding patterns of two arms, and those with two C-bands but with asymmetrical banding patterns of two arms. The last type is a heterogeneous group with various different asymmetrical patterns. We have studied 6 cases of Xqi with C, G, and Q banding: 3 showed one C-band and symmetrical arms and all these were without 45,X mosaicism; the other 3 cases showed two C-bands, 2 of the cases having symmetrical arms and being mosaic for 45X/46,XXqi/47,XXqiXqi (those 2 were a pair of identical twins). One other had asymmetrical arms and was mosaic for 45,X/46,XXqi. Including our 6 cases, there have been a total of 30 reported cases of Xqi with C and G banding studies. Two-thirds of Xqi's were found to have 2 C-bands and one-third to have 1 C-band. Mosaicism was found in 85% of Xqi's with 2 C-bands and in only 44% of Xqi's with 1 C-band. Apparently, Xqi's with 2 C-bands have a greater tendency for anaphase lag and mitotic nondisjunction. Several possible mechanisms for the formation of the different types of Xqi's are discussed.
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