The necropsy reports of 294 cases of anencephaly and 50 cases of iniencephaly have been examined, and a tubulated list of associated malformations produced. Cases were divided by sex and the presence or absence of spina bifida. Forty-one per cent of the series had other malformations, and other malformations were more common in those cases with spina bifida than in those without. The most frequent single malformations were: hydronephrosis (8%), cleft palate (8%), diaphragmatic hernia (5%), exomphalos (5%), hare lip (4%), and horseshoe kidney (4%). It is suggested that the presence of other malformations in anencephaly or iniencephaly may imply some aetiological heterogeneity.
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